The living World

The Living World

 What is “living”? The living World???

The living has following main characteristics property.

  1. Growth
  2. Reproduction
  3. Metabolism
  4. Cellular Organisation
  5. Consciousness

Metabolism, Cellular Organization, and Consciousness Are defining Properties of living organisms.

Defining Properties V/S Characteristics Properties

The Characters which has no exceptions is called defining properties .

Unique Feature of living organisms 

  1. Growth .
  2. Reproduction .
  3. Availity to sense environment and mount a suitable response come to our mind immediately .
  4. Metabolism .
  5. Availity to self replicate .
  6. Self Organise .

Now Study The Detail About the Characteristics Property of living Organisms .

  1. Growth:

-> UniCellular also grow by cell division .

Type Of Growth:

  • 1. Intrinsic growth:  Growth inside of the body of living Organisms.
  • 2. Extrinsic growth:  This Growth is from outside i.e. accumulation of material on any body surface .
  • Note :- This type growth also show by non living materials . so growth is characteristics property but not defining property of living organisms . 
GROWTH
Indeterminate Growth

 (Unlimited)

Determinate Growth

(limited)

Growth Which occurs continuously throughout their lifespan Ex. Plantsq Growth occurs only upto a certain age .

Ex. Animals and Other Majority organisms .

(2) REPRODUCTION

                  Reproduction refers to the production of progeny Processing feature more or less similar those of parents

(  reproduction—- production of new individual or progeny)

 

unicellular organism like bacteria unicellular  algae Or amoeba,  reproduction is synonymous with growth  i.e. increase in number of cells.

Reproduction 

Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction
(1)  BY Asexual spore— algae & fungi

(2)  By budding— in yeast & hydra

(3)  By fragmentation—- in filamentous algae, fungi, protonema of moss plants.

(4)  By true regeneration— fragmented organisms regenerate the lost part of its body and become a new organisms eg: planaria, high regeneration capacity.

  Gametes are formed by meiosis & fertilization occur.

 

  Detail in later

EXCEPTION:-   there are many living organisms which can not produce like mules, sterile human couples, worker bees;  so, reproduction also can not be taken as defining property of living organisms.

(3)METABOLISM

                                 All living being is made up of chemical and different chemical reaction occur inside the body, this reaction is a metabolic reaction.

The sum of all the chemical reaction occurring in our body is called Metabolism.

All living organisms both unicellular  or multicellular exhibit metabolism.

EXCEPTION

                          The isolated metabolic reaction outside the body of an organism, performed in a test tube (in vitro) is neither living nor non-living. But surely living reaction.

In vitro——outside the body

In vivo—— inside  the body

 

(4)CELLULAR ORGANISATION

Cell is the basic unit of life.

All living organisms are composed of cell, like unicellular–single cell,,, multicellular– many cell

(5)CONSCIOUSNESS

We sense these physical, chemical or biological stimuli through out sense organ.

Plant also sense and respond to external factor like light, water, temperature, other organisms, pollutants etc.

All organisms from the prokaryotes to complex eukaryotes show consciousness to environmental cues.

Some common examples of consciousness can be seen in organisms like plants performs flowering in a particular season(photoperiodism), some animals perform breeding in particular season only (seasonal breeders).

**human being is the only organism who is aware for himself i.e.has self-consciousness.

All living organisms present, past, & future are linked to one another by the sharing of the common genetic material but to varying degrees.

 

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